短歌とはどんな詩歌?・What is Tanka?

JAPANESE TANKA:

Tanka (短歌), literally ‘short song’ is a traditional form of Japanese lyric poetry. Derived from the old ‘waka’ (和歌: Song of Yamato/Japan) form, Tanka poetry is a 31-syllable poem, made up of five syllabic blocks in a 5-7-5-7-7 pattern. Traditionally the poem was written in one continuous line, although ‘kugire’ breaks, (also referred to as shifts or pauses) are incorporated into the flow of the poem by the poet to add emphasis and nuance. The upper three blocks (5-7-5) are referred to as the ‘kamino-ku’ or ‘upper part’ and the latter two (7-7) form the ‘shimono-ku’ or ‘lower part’.

The Man’yōshū  (Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves) Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves) edited by Otomo no Yakamochi in the mid-seventh century, is the oldest extant collection of tanka poetry.

Unlike the Haiku form, which is formed of only three syllabic blocks in a 5-7-5 pattern, Tanka does not require the inclusion of a seasonal ‘kigo’ word.

Tanka lyrics sing of the breadth of human emotional experience, ranging from love to loneliness and death. This condensed form often harnesses metaphor and figurative language and draws on the physical and spiritual world to give voice to the poet’s inner emotional life.

TANKA in English

TANKA is a compressed, imaginative lyric genre of English poetry that is inspired by the syllabic form of Japanese tanka poetry. Aesthetically, linguistically and in terms of literary form, this is a newer genre in the English cannon. Often written as a series of five lines, short-long-short-long-long, this style of poetry endeavours to express the essence of Japanese tanka – the natural flow of spontaneous expression – in an English form. As with their Japanese equivalent, English TANKA are not given a title and punctuation is keep to the minimum.

Amelia Fielden notes that “In English, tanka are normally written in five lines, also without (contrived) rhyme, but in a flexible, short-long-short-long-long rhythm.  Due to dissimilarities between the two languages, it is preferable not to apply the thirty-one syllable standard of the Japanese poems, to tanka in English.  About twenty-one plus/minus syllables in English produces an approximate equivalent of the essentially fragmentary tanka form and its lightness. To achieve a “perfect 21”, one could write five lines in 3-5-3-5-5 syllables.  If the resulting tanka sounds natural, then that’s fine.  However, the syllable counting does not need to be so rigid.  Though no line should be longer than seven syllables, and one should try to maintain the short-long-short-long-long rhythm, variations such as 2-4-3-5-5, or 4-6-3-6-7, or 3-6-4-5-6 syllable patterns can all make good tanka. (https://www.ameliafieldentanktalk.com/)

短歌とは:
日本の伝統的な叙情詩の形式を用いる短詩型文学である。古くは「和歌」「やまとうた」などと呼ばれていた。57577の音節(31音)をもって、一行で表記され、句切れ、休止などによってリズムの緩急や意味内容の複雑にして詩的な世界を表現する。

短歌は、愛や孤独、死に至るまで、幅広い人間の感情の経験を詠う。凝縮された形式は、しばしば暗喩や象徴によって物質と精神の世界を描き出し、詩人のうちなる感情生活に声を与えるのである。

TANKAとは:
音節形式の日本の短歌詩に触発された、圧縮された想像力豊かな英語の詩歌ジャンルです。 審美的、言語学的、文学的な観点から、これは英詩の新しいジャンルです。 多くの場合、短・長・短・長・長の5行詩として書かれており、この詩のスタイルは、日本の短歌の本質、自発的な表現の自然な流れを英語の形で表現するよう努めている。 日本語版と同様に、英語のTANKAにはタイトルが付けられておらず、句読点は最小限に抑えられている。

アメリアフィールデンによれば、「英語では短歌は通常5行で書かれており、韻はないが、柔軟で、短・長・短・長・長のリズムからなる。日本語と英語の言語の相違により、 英語の TANKAには31音節は適用できない。英語は、約21プラス/マイナスの音節で、本質的に断片的な短歌のあり様と軽さを生成する。 結果として TANAKAが自然に聞こえるのであれば、音節のカウントはそれほど厳密である必要はない。 音節は、2-4-3-5-5、4-6-3-6-7、または3-6-4などの短・長・短・長・長・長のリズムを維持するように心がけること。一般的に-5-6音節パターンは良い TANKAになる。(https://www.ameliafieldentanktalk.com/)